19 Web Site Creation
..The Internet, sometimes calls the World Wide Web, consists of millions
of connected computers. To be on the Internet, each computer is
assigned a number called an IP address.
People don't usually type in the IP address. Instead they type in
. The Internet governing
bodies keep lookup tables which translate from the name to the
number - transparently to the user.
A web site consists of files on a computer that the owner makes
available to the anyone on the Internet. To make the files available
the computer runs software called a server. There are several kinds
of servers, but the two most used at HTTP servers and FTP servers.
The names have to do with how the data is requested or transmitted.
Typically, companies called Internet Service Providers (ISPs) own computers
on which smaller users place all of the web site files. This is called
Web site owners typically use FTP programs to place their files onto
the ISP computers (servers). People who look at pages on a web
site are looking at the pages on the ISPs computers. The web site
owners typically create and test the web pages on their home PC
before transferring it to the server.
While any text editor, such as Notepad, can create web pages
there are a number of very powerful applications that larger
organizations use, such as Dreamweaver, Homesite, Frontpage,
Fusion. There are dozens of such programs available, some for
free but most cost about $50-$200.
Browsers (or any program that can read web pages on a server)
generally use HTTP. Popular browsers are Internet Explorer,
Netscape, Firefox, and Opera.
In addition to making files available, the server can allow a visitor
to run a program on the server computer, with the results of that
program being transferred to the visitor. Often, the program
creates a web page, typically from a database on the server,
on demand. This is called dynamic HTML - on the fly creation
of web pages.
Windows and UNIX are the most common operating systems used
on servers, although there are a number of lesser-know operating systems.
While nobody 'owns' the Internet there are organizations which have
been formed by general consent to create the standards for the
Internet. The rule-making body of the Web is the World Wide Web
Consortium, or W3C. The most essential web standards they
release are for HTML, CSS, HTTP, and XML.