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GBIC >> VB >> Tutorials >> JavaScript
Microsoft had hoped that VBScript would emerge as the premier scripting language for use on the web, but the title clearly belongs to JavaScript - arguably the most used language on the web! I use Perl for CGI scripts and JavaScript for web page scripts - in both cases because Microsoft products (VB and VBScript) fail to provide a solution compatible with most servers or browsers. As a VB programmer you should learn to decide which tool can be help you get the job done, then use it!

History Overview Embedding JavaScript
JavaScript Objects Browser Objects Samples
Variables Operators Control Statements
Functions Web Sites

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JavaScript History

Before I get too far into this tutorial, let me highly recommend that after you read it you should head over to the Netscape tutorial and work through it as well. It's an excellent read, although it helps immensely if you have a reasonable understanding of JavaScript first.

Now, let's talk about ECMA-262, JavaScript and JScript. The European standards organization ECMA has released ECMA-262. This document covers scripting for use in web pages. Netscape and Microsoft both have versions of this script. Netscape has JavaScript and Microsoft has JScript. Each supports the ECMA standard but each also has added their own unique extensions to the language.

Gosh, it sound almost like the browser wars again! But it's not really that bad unless you're trying out some of the advanced features. In my experience both browsers (Netscape Communicator and Microsoft Internet Explorer) handle scripts pretty much the same. I use Netscape documentation for learning but I develop all my scripts within Internet Explorer. This approach seems to work out pretty well.

And yes, there are other browsers out there. But, I have an inflexible attitude about that as well. Given that I have a limited time, and especially given that the vast majority of my users are from Netscape or Microsoft browsers, I simply give no attention to the abilility of other browsers to run my scripts correctly. If a user from a particular browser makes me aware of a problem, I will certainly work the issue. I spend no time at all trying to make my scripts be common to any but the "Big 2" browsers.

One additional thing to remember is that JavaScript is not a "light" version of Java. The two languages are completely independent of one another. JavaScript is a Netscape invention and the company Sun Microsystems was the developer of Java.

On the topic of terminology, you will find that the term JavaScript is the standard terminology on the web. Everyone knows that Microsoft has their own script technology name (JScript) but hardly anyone uses it.

As a web site developer I am forced to use only scripts which seem to work in both browsers. Not only do the browsers from both companies have some differences, it turns out that different versions of browsers within the same company don't even work the same. My attitude is that since the browsers are free, I write for version 5 of each browser and if a user has trouble with it, then they need to update anyway ! I simply don't have time to create scripts that determine which browser/update a user has and then to custom tailor my scripts for that version.

Actually, since Netscape was the originator of JavaScript (ECMA is essentially an after-the-fact standardization of what Netscape developed), I've found that their documentation and implementation of a scripting langauge is the de facto standard. Microsoft is playing catchup and works to make sure that JScript is compatible with JavaScript.

One thing you'll see if you go to each of their sites is that through the use of their own customization of the ECMA scripting technology, that both are trying to add features which will enforce the use of their version of JavaScript. Microsoft is particularly trying to encourage the integration of JavaScript, ActiveX technology, Visual Basic Script, and their server technologies. In fact, both companies are pushing hard to move the technology forward - Netscape to maintain the lead and Microsoft to catch up.

Bottom line is that the differences don't really come into play for most basic scripts. The more advanced the script, the more opportunity there is for conflicts. If you're like me, and have both browser on your PC, you can always simply check to make sure your scripts are doing what you expect.

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JavaScript Overview

JavaScript is simply a block of text (i.e., line of code) that you place into an HTML file which your browser can read and treat as a set of instructions. It is not unlike the old DOS batch files, but much more complex. It is similar to QBasic except that it can be placed inside another document (in this case, an HTML file) to take action on the document itself or to interact with a user. Like DOS batch files and like QBasic programs, JavaScript is an interpreted language. Each browser ships with a built-in JavaScript interpreter which reads the code lines and executes the statements without the need for precompiling the code.

But, unlike those predecessors JavaScript is geared only towards providing interactivity with a user by controlling the content/display of an HTML page. One big difference between web page script languages and their predecessors is that JavaScript (or VBScript) cannot read or write to your hard disk. This is done entirely for security reasons - to prevent someone from embedding a JavaScript in a page which would extract or damage information on your PC.

One of the things you will find is that JavaScript follows the programming industry standard of using objects. As a VB programmer you'll be somewhat familiar with the concept already, so learning JavaScript will feel like an extension of things you already know.

What JavaScript does, and does very well, is to give more control over web pages than HTML alone can provide. It allows a web page to respond to the actions of the viewer - change how or what information is displayed in response to user inputs - interactively!

Let's clarify one thing. When a browser reads a JavaScript it executes it right then and there - as part of creating the layout for a page. The layout of a page cannot change unless you reload the page. Some information on the page can change real-time, such as the text in a text box or an image on a page. I'll talk more about this further into the tutorial.

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Embedding JavaScript in HTML

JavaScript is very easy to place in an HTML file. We'll cover the JavaScript code shortly, but all you have to remember is to place the following two lines into the HTML file:

      <script name="myscript">

 or this

      <script name="myscript" src="myscript.js" >
Actually, any scripting language would use the same two lines, but since the only scripting language that both Netscape and Microsoft Internet Explorer support is JavaScript, these two lines have become synonymous with JavaScripts. Since an HTML page can have more than one script the "name" attribute is used to distinguish between them. As we will see shortly, the naming of scripts will also prove useful in writing interactive code. The second example in the code above shows that you can also chose to save your script into a file and have your browser read it from the server.

So how do you get a JavaScript to run? Consider this short example:

          document.write("Hello world!")
          function SayGoodbye()
          { document.write("Goodbye!") }
As a browser is loading a page it executes the contents of a JavaScript as soon as the script is read. In this example, the browser would read the script and write the words "Hello world!" on the screen as part of your web page. The string "Goodbye!", however, will not be written until you specifically call out the function "SayGoodbye" that is contained within the JavaScript.

While some JavaScripts do not contain functions - i.e., the page is designed so that the running the script as the page loads is all that is needed, such as for display of local time, or of a random message to the web page visitor - almost all JavaScripts use functions which must be specifically called by a user action. In the next section on Objects you will see that JavaScript objects have events - code which executes when a user action takes place. A JavaScript function can be called during one of those events. The syntax and an example for this is:

    <tag onEventName="MyFunction();" /tag>

    <a href="tutor.htm" onClick="go_there();"> Tutor Home Page </a>
The first line is the general syntax. You simply use an equality to set the eventname to the JavaScript function (or statements) to be run when the event takes place. In the example, the tag is modified to have a function called "go_there" to be executed when the user clicks on the "Tutor Home Page" link. Note that the onClick instructions over-ride the normal link function that a user would see if onClick were not included.

Finally, it is common practice to put your JavaScript code between HTML comment lines like this:

      <script name="myscript">
         --script code goes here
The reason for this practice is that some older browsers will not correctly recognize scripts. By putting the code within HTML comment lines, the older browsers will ignore the scripts. This practice is still prevalent, but with the pace of progress in browsers and given that Netscape and Microsoft cover the majority of the market, whether you use this practice is less of an issue than it was just a few years ago.

Finally, when writing a JavaScript you may want to include your own comments to help you understand the flow of the program. Comment lines begin with two backslashes "//". For a multiline comment, start the first line with a "/*" and end the last line with a "*/"

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JavaScript Objects

Since you're at my VB tutorial site, you will likely already have some programming background. This means you probably have a working knowledge of objects - including the concepts of properties, methods, and events. To be a JavaScript programmer you have to make use of the objects exposed by both JavaScript and by your browser. No, JavaScript is not object-oriented in the full classical sense, but it does use objects and is considered to be object-based.

In this section we will cover JavaScript objects. Browser objects are covered in the section beyond that. However, a short reminder is needed here. Microsoft and Netscape are in a constant struggle for control of the commercial markets. Each provides slightly different versions of JavaScript and each have a slightly different object model for their browser. As one adds features, the other plays catch-up. In my tutorial I try to present only common capabilities between the two, but as your expertise grows you will find that some taliloring of a JavaScript to the selected browser may be necessary.

Scripts that work well in Netscape Communicator may not work at all in Microsoft Internet Explorer. This holds for other browsers on the market as well, some of which do not support JavaScript at all!

Now, let's talk about JavaScript objects! Fortunately, there are only three: String object, Math object, and Date object. These objects have no events, only properties and methods as given below. JavaScript also supports several built-in functions, not associated with the three built-in objects. Those too are listed below.

  • String Object

    • Properties
      • length - the numer of character in a string

    • Methods
      While there are about 19 methods, you should note that most of them simply create a string with HTML tags around it so that you can more easily format any text that you create from within a JavaScript. The exceptions are for converting a string to lower or upper case, searching for a specific string within another string, or returning a portion of a string

        anchor(namedAttribute) - wraps in <A></A>
        bit() - wraps in <><>
        blink() - wraps in <><>
        bold() - wraps in <b></b>
        charAt(index) - wraps in <><>
        fixed() - wraps in <><>
        fontcolor(color) - color is in rrggbb hex format
        fontsize(size) - size is 1 to 7, and + or - relative
        indexOf(searchValue,[fromIndex]) - search string forward
        italics() - wraps in <i></i>
        lastOf(searchValue,[fromIndex]) - search string backward
        link(hrefAttribute - wraps in <a href...></a>
        small() - wraps in <><>
        strike() - wraps in <><>
        sub() - wraps in <><>
        substring(indexA, indexB) - returns part of a string
        sup() - wraps in <><>
        toLowerCase() - converts string to lower case
        toUpperCase() - converts string to upper case

  • Math Object

    • Properties
      The properties of the Math object are actually eight constants which are available for direct use, avoiding the need to program your JavaScript to calculate them.

        E - Euler's constant 2.718
        LN2 - natural logarithm of 2 - 0.693
        LN10 - natural logarithm of 10 - 2.302
        LOG2E - Base 2 logarithm of e - 1.442
        LOG10E- Base 10 logarithm of e - 0.434
        PI - Ratio of circumference to diameter - 3.14159
        SQRT1_2 - Square root of one-half - 0.707
        SQRT2 - Square root of two - 1.414

    • Methods
      The methods of the Math object are simply common mathematical functions which you may need when writing your scripts. These methods are similar to those found in any other programming language.

        abs(number) - absolute value
        acos(number) - arccosine
        asin(number) - arcsine
        atan(number) - arctangent
        ceil(number) - next integer higher or equal to number
        cos(number) - cosine
        exp(number) - e raised to the number
        floor(number) - next integer less or equal to number
        log(number) - natural logarithm of number
        max(number1, number2) - greater of the two numbers
        min(number1, number2) - lesser of the two numbers
        pow(base,exponent) - raises base to the power of exponent
        random() - randome number between zero and one
        round(number) - number rounded to nearest integer
        sin(number) - sine
        sqrt(number) - square root
        tan(number) - tangent

  • Date Object

      Unlike the String and Math objects which are automatically created, the Date object must be specifically created within the JavaScript in one of four ways:
              myDate = new Date()
              myDate = new Date("monthday, yearhours:minutes:seconds")
              myDate = new Date(year,month,day)
              myDate = new Date(year, month, day, hours, minutes, seconds)

    • Properties
      The Data object has no properties.

    • Methods
      There are nine Data object methods.

        getDate() - day of the month
        getDay() - day of the week
        getHours() - hour of the day
        getMinutes - minutes of the hour
        getMonth - the month
        getSeconds - seconds of the minute
        getTime - milliseconds since 1/1/1970
        getTimeZoneOffset - offset between local time and GMT
        getYear - the year
        toGMTString() - convert date to GMT format
        toLocaleString - convert to locale format
        parse - converts local time to milliseconds since 1/1/1970
        UTC - returns GMT time as milliseconds since 1/1/1970

  • Built-In Functions
      These six built-in functions (methods) are not associated with any of the 3 objects mentined above but my be used freely within your JavaScript program. The eval function is easily the most used function of the group.

      • eval(string) - evaluates an expression to return a number
      • parseFlot(string, [,radix]) - extract floating point number from string
      • partsInt(string, [,radix]) - extract Integer from string
      • isNaN(testvalue) - UNIX only, returns True or False (NaN = not a number)
      • escape("string") - converts to ASCII
      • unescape("string") - returns ASCII

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Browser Objects

The strength of JavaScript comes from what it can do with the display of the web page. This control is made possible by the browser's exposure of its own object heirarchy. Without such exposure, JavaScript would be pretty much useless. Thus, you have to understand the browser object model to be an effective JavaScript programmer.

The model is not identical for both Netscape Communicator and Microsoft Internet Explorer, but close enough for the majority of applications. As best I know, the object model shown below is common between the two.

Common Document Object Model

The window object is at the top of the heirarchy. Here are its properties and methods.
  • Properties
    • defaultstatus
    • frames
    • length
    • parent
    • self
    • status
    • top
    • window
  • methods
    • close
    • conform("message")
    • open
    • prompt("message,inputDefault")
    • timeoutID
    • clearTimeout(timeoutID)

The location and document objects are the two which will likely receive most of your programming efforts. Here are details on their properties and methods:

  • location object
      The location object has no methods
    • Properties
      • hostname
      • port
      • pathname
      • search
      • hash
      • href
      • host
  • document object
    • Properties
      • bgColor
      • fgColor
      • linkColor
      • alinkColor
      • vlinkColor
      • lastModified
      • location
      • referrer
      • title
      • cookie
    • Methods
      • write
      • writeln
      • open
      • close
      • clear

As the document model showed above, the document object itself consists of several objects which you can use within your JavaScript programs. Easily, the form object is where most of your programming will be, but before getting to the form object I'll first cover two lesser objects, the anchor and link.

The anchors object consists of all the anchors which are of the form <a> name="whatever" </a>. You can access the array using the following syntax:

    document.anchors(0) to document.anchors(document.anchors.length-1)

The linkobject consists of all the anchor object of either the form <a> name="whatever" </a> or the form <a> href="mypage.htm" </a>. You can access the array using the following syntax: to

Within the document, the form object provides the most useful interface. Its interface is list below. The actual event names are pretty much descriptive of the user action so a lot of detail isn't necessary. I also show the specific elements of a page for which the events apply. For example, the onLoad event applies to the document window, but not to any of the form text elements on the page.

  • Events
    • onBlur - user removes focus from a form element
      Applies to: select, text, textarea
    • onChange - user changes value of a form element
      Applies to: select, text, textarea
    • onClick - user clicks on a link or a form element
      Applies to: button, checkbox, link, radio, reset, submit
    • onFocus - user sets focus on a form element
      Applies to: select, text, textarea
    • onLoad - page is loaded into the browser
      Applies to: window
    • onMouseout - user moves mouse off a link or anchor
      Applies to: link
    • onMouseover - user moves mouse over a link or anchor
      Applies to: link
    • onSelect user selects a form element's input field
      Applies to: text, textarea
    • onSubmit - user submits a form
      Applies to: form
    • onUnload - user exits the page
      Applies to: window
  • Methods
      The is only one method for a document.
    • submit

The form object also support the forms array whose properties are as follows.

  • action
  • element - array of element objects defined in the form
  • encoding
  • length - number of entries in the element array
  • method
  • target

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JavaScript Variables

JavaScript recoginizes only four variable types:
  • Numbers - covers integer and decimal numbers
  • Strings - conventionl string
  • Boolean - true or false
  • Null - undefined or no value

To use a variable in JavaScript you simply include it in the script - no declaration of the variable is required. Variables must start with a letter or underscore but may otherwise have numerals in the name.

Remember that I mentioned earlier that a web page can have more than one script on it? That becomes important in this discussion on variables. If you use a variable in one script, it automatically becomes avaialable in every other script on the page! If both scripts use and change the same variable you can easily get unexpected results.

To work around that problem, JavaScript offers the ability to define a variable so that it is available only to that script! Here's how:

    var myVariable = 10
Using the "var" keyword stops any other script from seeing "myVariable". This means each script could define its own variable "myVariable" and each would have its own independent value. In such a case, "myVariable" would be known as a "local" variable rather than a "global" variable.

When you use string variables you can enclose them with single or double quotes. When a string is to be used as an argument within double quotes, you must enclose the string within single quotes.

Also with strings, the following special characters can be represented by the following:

  • backspace - \b
  • form feed - \f
  • newline - \n
  • carriage return - \r
  • tab - \t

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JavaScript Operators

As you would expect, JavaScript lets you write expressions similar to what you would see in VB and other programming languages. The +, -, /, *, <, >, <=, >= and ^ operators apply as usual. Other operator syntax includes:
  • && - Boolean AND
  • | - Boolean NOT
  • || - Boolean OR
  • % - Modulus
  • == - Equal
  • |= - Not Equal
JavaScript also supports several shorthand assignment operators which are similar to C++ or Perl coding syntax. This is not the complete list, but does cover the most used operators.
  • += : x+=y is the same as x = x + y
  • -= : x-=y is the same as x = x - y
  • *= : x*=y is the same as x = x * y
  • /= : x/=y is the same as x = x / y
  • %= : x%=y is the same as x % y (modulus)

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JavaScript Control Statements

Here's where some of the real work in JavaScript gets done. By using the following control statements you are able to add animation to a page, make its content dynamic, or allow for interaction with the user. These statements are functionally identical to control statements found in all programming languages.

In the examples to follow, the braces {} are used to enclose a series of JavaScript statements. You can put the braces on separate lines or on the same lines as the code.

In addition to the code shown for the following control statements, JavaScript offers two special statements which can modify the way in which code executes in a script.

  • break
    when executed within a control loop, causes execution to exit from the control loop
  • continue
    terminates the execution of the current loop, then begins execution with the next iteration of the loop.

Here are the various control groups available for use in your JavaScripts.

Use this to execute a block of statements if a condition is true.

    if (condition)
    { statements; }
Use this to execute one block of statements if a condition is true or a second block of statements if a condition is false.
    if (condition)
    { statements; }
    { statements; }
Use this construct to execute a block of instructions a fixed number of times. The number of loops can be a simple integer, or even an expression.
    for (initial-expression; condition; increment-expression)
    { statements; }

This loop will continue while the condition is true. The statements will not execute at all unless the condition is initially true.

    while (condition)
    { statements; }
This loop will continue until the condition becomes false, but is assured of completing the statements at least once.
    { statements; }
    while (condition)
This next capability is especially useful to programmers. The control loop will cycle through each property of an object or each element of an array.
    for (variable in object)
    { statements; }
Finally, if you get tired of typing, when you want to execute a series of statements using the same object, you can use this:
    with (object)
    { statements; }

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JavaScript Functions

As was mentioned earlier the contents of a script will execute immediately on loading of a web page, except for the code contained in functions. Functions must be specifically called before the code will be executed. The syntax for a function is similar to a VB Sub function:
    function MyFunctionName(arg1, arg2, ...)
       return myvariable
To call the function you simply use the "MyFunctionName" with the arguments as a statement in the JavaScript (arguments may be numbers, strings, expresssions or objects).
    MyFunctionName (10,23)
    MyFunctionName (varX, varY)
    MyFunctionName (varX*varY, varX+varY)

A function does not have to return a value, but can do so. Unlike VB, where the return value is set by setting the function name to a value, a JavaScript function simply identifies the expresssion or variable whose value is to be returned (see the example above).

Functions are normally accessed by placing the call to the function in the code for one of the many event handlers.

If you do include arguments in the call to a function, those arguments are automatically available as variables - an explicit argument declaration using the "var" is not necessary and will have values based on the value contained in the function call. However, for other variables used within a function use of the "var" declaration is required.

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Sample JavaScripts

Reading tutorials are just fine, but it is when you see and use the code that it all comes together. Here are several examples of simple scripts.

Remember that applying JavaScript consists of the following actions:

  • Place the script into the HTML file
  • Place functions within the script. Anything outside a function will be executed automatically as the page loads. Functions only execute when specifically called.
  • Place code within HTML tags to respond to user actions (events)

Now for the code:

  • Display an Alert box
        <script name="myscript">
  • Display a Confirm box
        <script name="myscript">
           var answer=confirm("Go there?")
           if (answer)
           { window.location="newpage.htm" }
  • Display Prompt box
        <script name="myscript">
           var answer=prompt("Enter your name.")
           alert("Hello" + answer)
  • Set Form Background Color
        <script name="myscript">
           document.bgColor = "blue"
  • Set Text in Window Status
        <script name="myscript">
           window.status="Welcome to my page!"   
  • Set Text in Window Status on MouseOver
        <script name="myscript">
           <a href="mypage.htm" onMouseover="window.status='active link';return true"
                                   onMouseout="window.status=''">My Page</a>
  • Display Document Date
        <script name="myscript">
  • Use a Link as a Submit Button
        First, create this link somewhere on the page
        <a href="javascript:document.myform.submit()">Go There</a>
        Second, create a form named "myform"
        <form name="myform">
  • Image Flip
        <a href="mypage.htm" onMousover "if('after.gif'"
                                onMouseout "if('before.gif'">
                                <img src="before.gif" name="menu"></a>
  • Check for Valid Email
        First, create this form:
        <form name="example">
        <input type="text" name="email" onBlur="emailcheck()">
        Second, create this script
        <script name="myscript">
           function emailcheck() {
             var EmailString=document.example.value
             if (EmailString.indexOf("@")==-1)
                { alert("Please re-enter email address")

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    Web Sites

    There are two kinds of sites which will help you develop expertise with JavaScript - general purpose tutorial sites which provide JavaScript information and JavaScript-specific sites which are focussed on JavaScript tutorials and code. Then, there is the home site of the actual languages themselves (one for the Netscape version and one for the Microsoft version).